Submission GuideLines

Submission Guidelines

Enacted on July 16, 2012
Revised on December 20, 2013
Revised on November 05, 2015
Revised on August 24, 2016
Revised on January 23, 2019
Revised on March 13, 2020

1. General Details

1.1 Papers submitted to the Journal of Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (hereinafter referred to as the Journal) shall be written based on academic research findings obtained from conducting original studies in either English or Korean.

1.2 Papers are categorized into academic, technical and short papers according to contents, and into general and urgent papers according to review period.

1.3 Papers shall be written in the order of title, author name and address, abstract, main text and references. For more details, refer to the latest issue of the Journal.

1.4 Manuscripts shall be written on word processors using the style of file regulated by the Society. The font size shall all be 11pt.

1.5 Papers shall be submitted using the online submission system of the Society's website (

1.6 The publication dates of the Journal are March 15, June 15, September 15 and December 15, and papers are published in the relevant issue only when the processes of review, revision and final printing are completed one month before the expected date of publication. Papers that are not completed within the deadline are published in the next issue.

1.7 Submission is limited to the members of the Society that are paying the membership fee. If non-members want to make submissions, they can obtain this right by handing in the membership application form and paying the annual fee along with their submissions.

1.8 The publication rights of the submitted papers are owned by the Society, and the author's act of submission demonstrates acknowledgement thereof. The Society can disclose the submitted papers via internal and external electronic databases.

1.9 Authors should ensure correct use of the terms sex (when reporting biological factors) and gender (identity, psychosocial or cultural factors), and, unless inappropriate, report the sex and/or gender of study participants, the sex of animals or cells, and describe the methods used to determine sex and gender. If the study was done involving an exclusive population, for example in only one sex, authors should justify why, except in obvious cases (e.g., prostate cancer). Authors should define how they determined race or ethnicity and justify their relevance.[Revised on Jan 23, 2019]

1.10 Author Contributions: The manuscript with several authors, a short paragraph specifying their individual contributions must be provided. The following statements should be used “conceptualization, X.X. and Y.Y.; methodology, X.X.; software, X.X.; validation, X.X., Y.Y. and Z.Z.; formal analysis, X.X.; investigation, X.X.; resources, X.X.; data curation, X.X.; writing—original draft preparation, X.X.; writing—review and editing, X.X.; visualization, X.X.; supervision, X.X.; project administration, X.X.; funding acquisition, Y.Y.”. Authorship must be limited to those who have contributed substantially to the work reported. [Revised on Jan 23, 2019]

1.11 Conflict of Interest: Authors must identify and declare any personal circumstances or interest that may be perceived as inappropriately influencing the representation or interpretation of reported research results. If there is no conflict of interest, please state "The authors declare no conflict of interest." [Revised on Jan 23, 2019]

1.12 Final Approval: Authors must confirm the final version of the manuscript to be published. If there are no further changes, authors should notify the society of this. [Revised on March 13, 2020]

1.13 Accuracy or Integrity of Editing: Authors should verify the accuracy or integrity of any part of the manuscript edited by the Society. Each edition of the manuscript according to the edit and revision should be confirmed by authors and the revision should be notified to the Society. Authors must agree to take responsibility for the ‘revision requests’ and ‘no corrections’ provided by authors. [Revised on March 13, 2020]

2. Composition of Manuscripts

2.1 Manuscripts shall be prepared in the following manner.
Author name
Mailing address
Phone and fax number, e-mail address
Heading (shorter version of the title that is to be printed in the upper-right corner of each page)
Main text
Acknowledgments (optional)
Appendices (optional)
Figure captions
Table captions
Figures, figure captions, tables and table captions shall be inserted after the references in principle, but are also permitted to be inserted in the main text.

2.2 For the title, the first letter of each word shall be capitalized and in bold.

2.3 For the heading, which is the shorter version of the title, the first letter of each word shall be capitalized and in normal font.

2.4 The author name shall be in bold.
Example 1: Kil-Dong Hong
Example 2: Kil-Dong Hong, Chul-soo Kim, Soon-Young Lee

2.5 The author's address shall contain affiliations, addresses and zip codes. If there are co-authors, all relevant addresses shall be given. E-mail addresses, phone and fax numbers (to contact the main author) shall be provided so that they can be used in the editing process later.

2.6 Section headings such as ABSTRACT, 1. INTRODUCTION, and REFERENCES shall be capitalized, and subsection or subsection headings shall have only the first letter of each word capitalized. All headings other than subsections shall be in bold. The abstract, acknowledgments and references shall not be numbered.

2.7 Section headings shall be centered, and subsection headings left aligned.

2.8 Sections and subsections shall be organized in the order of 1., 1.2, and 1.2.1 if necessary.

2.9 All tables and figures included in the paper shall be cited within the main text with the necessity justified.

3. Citations and References

3.1 Articles that are cited shall be written using the author's last name and year of publication at the relevant section of the paper as shown below.
Example 1: . . . (Hale 1929). Do not put a comma before the year.
Example 2: Hale & Kim (1929) found . . .
Example 3: Hale et. al. (1929) or (Hale et al. 1929)

3.2 If there are 2 or 3 authors, use the symbol "&" instead of "and". If there are 3 authors, put a comma before "&".
Example: Hale, Kim, & Lee (1968)

3.3 If there are 3 or more authors, use "et al." when making citations in the main text. Use a normal font instead of italics, and put a period at the end. But in references, if there are 5 or more co-authors, write only up to 5 names and mark the rest with "et al."

3.4 When citing two or more articles published by the same author in the same year, they shall be differentiated using symbols such as "a, b, c" next to the year. The same rule also applies to the references.
Example: Hale (1929a)
Example: Hale (1929a,b)

3.5 References shall be provided in alphabetical order of the authors' names. If there are multiple articles by the same author, write the article in the order of publication. If there are articles by a single author and co-authors including the same person, the article published by a single author shall be provided first.

3.6 References shall be written in English even if the original article cited is written in Korean.

3.7 If one of the reference data is too long and it moves on to the next line, make an indentation starting with the next line.

3.8 The guidelines for writing each reference are as follows.
- When citing an article published in an academic publication
Author (last name, initials), year, title of article, title of journal, volume, page Sandage, A. & Tamman, G. A. 1993, Test of radio-activity using GNSS, Journal of GNSS, 41, 110-116
- When citing a book
Author (last name, initials), year, title of book (location of publisher: publisher), page or first page-last page
Chandrasekhar, S. 1942, Principles of Stellar Dynamics (New York: Dover), pp.242-255
- When citing an edited collection of papers such as proceedings
Author (last name, initials), year, title of paper, title of book, ed. publisher name (location of publisher: publisher), page
Huchra, J. P. 1986, Test of radio-activity using GNSS, Inner Space/Outer Space, eds. E. W. Kolb et al. (Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press), p.65
- When citing a book published in series or proceedings
Author (last name, initials), year, in series name, title of book, ed. publisher name (location of publisher: publisher), volume, page
Holmberg, E. 1975, in Stars and Stellar Systems, RTK in GNSS, eds. A. Sandage & J. Kristian (Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press), vol.9, p.123
- When citing a thesis/ dissertation
Author, year, title of thesis/dissertation, institution
Burstein, D. 1976, Test of radio-activity using GNSS, PhD Thesis, University of California: Santa Cruz
      Note 1. Do not put a comma between author and year.
      Note 2. Put a colon between (location of publisher: publisher).
      Note 3. The editor name shall be in the order of "initials, last name".
      Note 4. Do not put a period at the end.
      Note 5. Leave an empty space in front of each initial.
- When citing a technical document
Hong, W. & Park, H. 2004, technical document of a science institute (GPS Receiver and Time Sync. Test Results), KOC-LPP-TM-2004-011
- Others
Hong, W. 2000, private communication
Burstein, D. 1976, private communication
- When citing a website
Citing a general website article with an author
Author, A. A. Year, Month Date of Publication, Article title. Retrieved from URL
Simmons, B. 2015, January 9, The tale of two Flaccos. Retrieved from
Citing a general website article without an author
Anonymous, Article title, Year, Month Date of Publication, Retrieved from URL
Anonymous, Teen posed as doctor at West Palm Beach hospital: police, 2015, January 16, Retrieved from
Citing an e-book from an e-reader
Author, A. A. Year of Publication, Title of work [E-Reader Version]. Retrieved from http://xxxx or
Eggers, D. 2008, The circle [Kindle Version]. Retrieved from
Citing a magazine article found online
Author, A. A. Year, Month of Publication, Article title, Magazine Title, Volume(Issue). Retrieved from http://xxxx
Tumulty, K. 2006, April, Should they stay or should they go?, Time, 167(15). Retrieved from http://,9171,1179361,00.html
Citing a newspaper article found online
Author, A. A. Year, Month Date of Publication, Article title, Newspaper Title.
Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL Rosenberg, G. 1997, March 31, Electronic discovery proves an effective legal weapon, The New York Times. Retrieved from Citing a journal article found online Author, A. A. Publication Year, Article title. Periodical Title, Volume(Issue), pp-pp. or Retrieved from journal URL
Jameson, J. 2013, E-Leadership in higher education: The fifth “age” of educational technology research, British Journal of Educational Technology, 44, 889-915.

3.9 Papers in publication or that are in preparation for publication shall be marked "in press", "submitted", and "in preparation".

3.10 If there are 2 or more authors, put "&" before the last author. If there are 3 or more authors, put a comma before "&". : Hale, J. R., Tayler, R. J., & Suwart, K. R. 1993, . . .

3.11 The title of the journal shall be summarized according to the general standard of the SCI academic journals.

3.12 Write the volume in Arabic numerals for journal articles, and as "vol.2" for books in series.

4. Equations

4.1 All equations shall be centered.

4.2 Mark all equations with the serial number (1), (2), ... on the right side of the page.

4.3 When citing equations, mark them with Eq. (3), Eqs. (3,5), Eqs. (3-6).

4.4 To mark vectors, write the text in bold instead of using arrows above the text.

4.5 Do not write a title for an equation.

5. Tables

5.1 Do not use vertical lines in any of the tables, but use only horizontal lines.

5.2 All tables shall have the serial number in Arabic numerals, which shall be used to mark "Table 1" or "Tables 1 and 2" when making a citation.

5.3 All tables shall have a brief title. The title shall be located above the table, and have a period at the end.

5.4 Tables shall be centered. When organized with the text, they shall be located at the top or bottom of the page.

5.5 All horizontal lines of tables shall be used at the bottom section above the table column heading and last section in single lines.

5.6 Each column heading shall be in simple words and the first letter capitalized.

5.7 When necessary, footnotes can be used under the table using Arabic numerals in superscripts.

5.8 Unit symbols are to be included not on the body of the table, but on the column headings.

5.9 Do not put special effects such as shading on the tables.

6. Figures

6.1 All figures shall have the serial number in Arabic numerals, "Fig. 1” or “Figs. 1 and 2” or "Figs. 1-5" when making a citation.

6.2 All figures shall have adequate captions containing the explanations of the contents, lines and symbols to improve understanding. Put figure captions below the figures and align text on both sides.

6.3 Figures as well as texts in the figures shall meet the resolution requirement of 600dpi and above.

6.4 Texts in the figures shall be as close to 11pt font size as possible when printed so that they match the main text.

6.5 Figures shall be done in black and white printing. But if color printing is required, this is allowed on the assumption that the author covers the additional costs.

6.6 All graphs shall have borders on all four sides, and a clear indication of the name of each axis, numbers and units. For other general figures (schematic diagrams, flowcharts, etc.), borders are not required.

6.7 When forming a single figure by combining multiple figures, put captions such as (a), (b), (c) clearly inside the figure.

6.8 For photographic data, the original shall be submitted if good results are not available with half-tone printing. In this case, the author is required to cover the additional printing cost.

6.9 All figures shall be submitted in electronic files.

6.10 If figures are submitted separately from the main text, they shall be labeled with a file name and the serial number for figures at the bottom of figure printing.

6.11 All figures shall be centered. When organized with the text, they shall be located at the top or bottom of the page.

7. Others

7.1 Abbreviations shall be given in full names when mentioned for the first time. The full names shall be included once again in the main text even if the abstract has already mentioned them.
Example: Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)

7.2 Symbols of elements shall be written in Roman type and not italicized.

7.3 SI units and astronomical units shall be used in common abbreviations (cm, m, km, A.U., pc, arcsec, Mpc, mag, etc.).

7.4 All sentences shall not begin with symbols or numbers.

7.5 The references cited in the main text shall precisely match the list of references.

8. Publication Fees

8.1 The basic publication fee for general papers is KRW 200,000, and KRW 20,000 per page (example: a 10-page paper, KRW 200,000 + 10 pages x KRW 20,000/page = KRW 400,000).
The basic publication fee for urgently processed papers is KRW 300,000, and KRW 20,000 per page (example: a 10-page paper, KRW 300,000 + 10 pages x KRW 20,000/page = KRW 500,000). [Revised on November 05, 2015]

8.2 If color printing is required, the author pays for the additional costs.

8.3 The publication fee is subject to change without prior notification upon the decision of the board according to the The Institute of Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (IPNT) circumstances.

8.4 The publication fee shall be deposited in the designated account within 7 days after receiving the bill. If the publication fee is not paid, the relevant author (as well as co-authors) may be deprived of submission rights in the future.

9. Notification of Guidelines for Journal Submissions

9.1 These guidelines for journal submissions shall be published in the Journal to remind the members.

9.2 These guidelines are to be posted on the JPNT website ( so that the members can frequently check them.

9.3 Manuscripts that are not in conformance with the guidelines designated by the IPNT are immediately returned to the authors, reminding them of these guidelines.

10. Paper Submission and Review Process

1Author submissionNotification of author submissionChairman PublisherWithin 1 week after application
Selection of editorsNotification to the responsible staff, attachment of review formChairmanWithin 1 week after application
2Selection of 2 reviewersNotification to the responsible staffEditorImmediately after editing
Notification of review processNotification to the authors that manuscripts are being reviewed and will undergo the first review process within 3 weeksEditorImmediately after editing
3ReviewReviewersEditorMaximum 3 weeks
Confirmation of review resultsDetermination of paper review results with reference to the results of reviewersEditorAs soon as possible
Notification of review resultsNotification of review results to the authors with the consent of the editor-in-chief, and demand for written answers about revisionsEditorAs soon as possible
Re-reviewRepeated process of review after revision or in re-review As soon as possible
4Approval of publicationNotification of approval of publication to the authors with the consent of the editor-in-chief after the review process is completeEditor ChairmanAs soon as possible
Editing reportSubmission of the written opinions of review as well as authors' written answers to the publishers and the editor-in-chief, and notification to the authors to submit the final revised manuscriptsEditorAs soon as possible
5Manuscript editingThe manuscript editing results are to be notified to the authors for revisionPublisherWithin 1 week
6Publication editing/printing Chairman Publisher

Supplementary Provision

1. These guidelines are enforced starting July 16, 2012
2. These guidelines are enforced starting December 20, 2013
3. These guidelines are enforced starting January 01, 2016
4. These guidelines are enforced starting August 24, 2016
5. These guidelines are enforced starting Jan 23, 2019
6. These guidelines are enforced starting March 13, 2020



Examination Guidelines

Enacted on July 16, 2012
Revised on December 20, 2013
Revised on November 05, 2015

Article 1 The examination and approval of papers submitted to the Journal of Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (hereinafter referred to as the Journal) are to follow these guidelines. Technical papers and short papers are also regarded as papers.
Article 2 The editors of submitted papers are recommended by the Editor-in-Chief, and the examiners are recommended by the relevant editors and appointed by the Editor-in-Chief.
Article 3 The list of examiners are not to be announced.
Article 4 Examination details are not to be announced officially to those other than the authors.
Article 5 Publication of papers is determined by examination of at least 2 examiners.
Article 6 Examination results are classified into 4 types: “suitable for publication”, “publication after revision”, “reexamination after revision”, and “not suitable for publication”.
  (1) Papers “suitable for publication” are approved without proofreading.
  (2) Regarding papers for “publication after revision”, the authors make revisions to the matters pointed out by the examiners, the relevant editors check them and recommend approval, and the Editor-in-Chief finally confirms and determines whether the publish the papers or not.
  (3) Regarding papers for “reexamination after revision”, the authors make revisions to the matters pointed out by the examiners and undergo the reexamination process.
  (4) Regarding papers “not suitable for publication”, the Editor-in-Chief notifies the authors that the submitted papers cannot be published by the Journal.
Article 7 If the examiners acknowledge that the contents of the papers are relevant to one of the following matters, the papers are labeled as “postponement of approval”, and the examiners specifically point out the relevant matters and demand revision or supplementation. The papers revised by the authors are subject to reexamination by the previous examiners.
  (1) If there is no clear difference between the author’s research findings and others’ research findings
  (2) If the key research contents are unclear
  (3) If indications or explanations about figures or tables are insufficient or unclear
  (4) Other cases in which revisions are deemed necessary
Article 8 If the examiners acknowledge that the contents of the papers are relevant to one of the following matters, the papers are labeled as “not suitable for publication” and must clarify the reason in detail.
  (1) If originality is unclear
  (2) If the facts or ideas determined by the author are unclear in the content of the paper, or if it is unclear that a well-known fact is comprehensively analyzed or studied in angles different from the methods or perspectives used in cited literatures
  (3) Other cases in which the paper is deemed inappropriate to publish in the Journal
Article 9 If the views of the two examiners on whether to approve the paper or not are conflicting, the decision can be made by the relevant editor; and if difficult to make the decision, a third examiner will be determined and the relevant editor can make the decision with reference to this examiner’s view.
Article 10 Papers may not be accepted if they are acknowledged by the Editor-in-Chief that they are not suitable for the writing techniques of the Society.
Article 11 Regarding manuscripts written in foreign languages, the Editor-in-Chief may suggest the authors to revise or rewrite the papers for submission if the contexts are unclear or are grammatically incomprehensible.
Article 12 The examiners must examine the assigned manuscripts within 3 weeks (21 days) by principle after the appointment, and submit their examination reviews to the Society.
Article 13 This Society shall send the examination reviews to the authors within 1 week of receiving them from the examiners.
Article 14 If the examiners do not submit their examination reviews within 3 weeks (21 days) after the request, the request may be withdrawn, in which case the manuscripts must be immediately destroyed.

Supplementary Provisions

1. These Guidelines come into effect starting July 16, 2012
2. These Guidelines come into effect starting December 20, 2013
3. These Guidelines come into effect starting November 05, 2015